Glaucoma is also called a silent killer of the eyes. Because it silently blinds the eye.
Nerves within the eye go out to the optic nerves and connect to the brain and in is what actually loses vision, the images formed of the retina these nerves goes to the brain and connect to the brain that is how we are able to see.
So in glaucoma essentially what happens is these nerves get affected and they start drying up and then dry completely the certain area Of vision loss that happen and this kind of vision loss and irreversible vision loss and the periphery of the vision start getting affected first.
So in the initial stages when there is loss of periphery vision the patient does not realize anything and when the eye pressure is jutted quietly increase the patient may not have any symptoms at all and that is what silent blind killer and a silent blinder of the eye.
When the eyes start going blind without even realize. That is the reason we request to all the patients get the eyes tested once they reached 40 years or if they have a strong family history of glaucoma they should get the eyes tested for glaucoma.
Different types of glaucoma
The most common type is there seen in the population is open-angle glaucoma. where the way of track for the fluid to go out to the eye is open.
But the angle is open it has resistance because of which the fluid doesn’t drain out completely giving rise to higher pressure.
Another type of glaucoma could be angle-closer glaucoma wherein the angle is closed and the way for the fluid out is very-very narrow and sometimes it could be stuck with the iris tissue and that is the reason eye pressure goes high.
Both types of glaucoma require different treatments, depending on the cause. And it could be the secondary reason for glaucoma when the eye pressure going to be high because of other diseases within the eye.
Diabetes could have a new blood vessel formation on to the iris and that could be also needed for glaucoma and the third most common cause of glaucoma along with diabetic retinopathy which can cause the patient to become blind. Despite treatment of the retinopathy if the pressure of the eye continues to remain high that could still because of blindness that’s the reason glaucoma should be evaluated early, diagnosed early, and treated on time before the patient loses vision or if the patient realizes that he loses the vision it is already very late.
The most common test that is done for glaucoma is a routine pressure check of the eye which could be done in any clinic and if the pressure is high then drops could be used to lower the pressure and then that way treatment could be done.
In case it goes to be an advanced form or if the pressure is very high and if not coming under control just with the drops then it required small form of a laser so selective laser Trabeculoplasty is one form of laser which is offered to be open-angle glaucoma patient wherein that successful then the patient does not require to use drops in the eye.
For an angle-closure, if there is an acute attack it requires acute treatment with tablets and maybe injection given in the veins to get the pressure down immediately and the follow by laser iridotomy which done by YAG laser to make an opening within the iris so the fluid of the eye has a pathway to go out of the eye. As I said most symptoms of glaucoma are not their very rare cases there could be eye pain could be Nausea vomiting severe headache when the pressure goes very high but only the pressure goes more than 40.
In earlier cases the patient could have blurry vision hallows around the light and redness in the eye, especially dark conditions were that could be narrow-angle glaucoma.
Risk factor – so patients are having risk factors should be screened more often so anybody more than 40 or is Asian or has a family history or patient having systemic diabetes, blood pressure, or heart diseases could get a higher risk. Patients with thinner cornea could also be at higher risks and that’s why they should get cornea tested.
So prevention of glaucoma would involve routine eye check-ups of the eye and if the pressures are high then continue monitoring of the pressure and also monitoring of the optic nerve.
There could be a specific test required in the form of optical tomography which could be done on regular basis to monitor how to nerve is progressing.